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Acu-Cell Nutrition

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2014  Dietary Reference Intake  (DRI) - Recommended Dietary Allowance / Intake  (RDA / RDI) for
Adults, Children, Pregnancy & Nursing - Adequate Intake  (AI) - Tolerable Upper Intake Level  (UL)
          

DRI / RDA  for Calcium and Magnesium  +  Vitamin A, D, K:

Vitamin D Sources:
D3: Fish, fish oils, eggs, liver, fortified dairy products.

D2: Irradiated foods.  Some mushrooms produce
large amounts of Vit D (> 6000 IU per 100 g) when
exposed to UV rays for a few minutes after harvest.

Best time to take Calcium:  Late day / bedtime.
(or last meal before bedtime if working night shift).
If amounts in excess of 500mg are taken, the balance
should be split equally between mid and late-day meals.

For best absorption, Calcium pills should be taken with food, and doses should not exceed 500 mg at a time.
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Cellular / Intracellular Attributes and Interactions:
Calcium Synergists:
Copper, potassium, boron, strontium, sodium, CoQ10,
titanium, Vitamin B5, Vitamin D, Vit K, [magnesium*].

Calcium Antagonists / Inhibitors: *
Phosphorus, iron, manganese, germanium, chloride,
bismuth, chromium, zinc, sulfur, Vitamin A, Vitamin C,
Vitamin E, niacin / niacinamide, PABA, insoluble fiber,
phytic acid, lecithin, protein, oxalic acid, mineral oil,
alcohol, caffeine, w3 (e.g. flaxseed oil), [magnesium].
Magnesium Synergists:
Chromium, zinc, boron, CoQ10, Vitamin B2,
Vitamin B6, insoluble fiber, [calcium,* Vitamin D*].

Magnesium Antagonists / Inhibitors:
Sodium, potassium, iron, selenium, copper, lithium,
silicon / silica, manganese, Vitamin A, Vitamin B1,
Vitamin C, Vitamin E, niacin / niacinamide, PABA,
Vitamin K, folate, choline, uric acid, alcohol, w6 (e.g.
primrose, pumpkin seed oil), [calcium,* Vitamin D*].
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2014  Dietary Reference Intake  (DRI) - Recommended Dietary Allowance / Intake  (RDA / RDI) for
Adults, Children, Pregnancy & Nursing - Adequate Intake  (AI) - Tolerable Upper Intake Level  (UL)
* Most of the above are dose-dependent.  They are co-factors at normal levels, and antagonists at higher levels.
Low Levels / Deficiency - Symptoms and/or Risk Factors:
Calcium:
Insomnia, anxiety, nervousness, depression, fatigue,
muscle / joint pains, muscle spasms / cramps, high
stomach acid, osteoporosis, seizures, birth defects,
miscarriage, high blood pressure, irregular heart
beat, cardiovascular disease, hemorrhagic stroke,
aneurysms, PMS, dysmenorrhea (painful periods),
rickets, higher risk for some cancers.
Magnesium:
Irregular heart beat, cardiovascular disease, anxiety,
insomnia, nervousness, fatigue, muscle / joint pains,
osteoporosis, seizures, high stomach acid, asthma,
high blood pressure, PMS, depression, sweating,
muscle spasms / cramps, dysmenorrhea, angina,
constipation, migraine / headaches.
High levels / Overdose / Toxicity / Negative Side Effects - Symptoms and/or Risk Factors:
Calcium:
Arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, arrhythmia,
ischemic heart disease and stroke, hypertension,
low stomach acid, depression, fatigue, glaucoma,
higher risk for several cancers, muscle / joint pains,
osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, calcification, dry skin,
constipation.
Calcium Sources:
Dairy products, tofu, almonds, brazil nuts, salmon,
sardines, broccoli, collard greens, kale, cauliflower,
soybeans, seaweed / kelp, hard water, molasses.
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Magnesium:
Cardiovascular disease, arrhythmia, cardiac arrest,
coma, muscle spasms, joint / spinal degeneration,
bone loss, low stomach acid, low body temperature,
low blood pressure, higher risk for several cancers,
intestinal / genitourinary bleeding, dry skin, fatigue,
depression, dehydration, diarrhea.
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Magnesium Sources:
Almonds, brazil nuts, soybeans, wheat germ, seeds,
wheat bran, millet, legumes, dark green vegetables,
fruit, seafood, hard water.
DRI (RDA):
0-6 months
6-12 months
1-3 years
4-8 years

9-13 years  males
14 + years  males

9-13 years  females
14 + years  females
pregnant
lactating
2,000 IU or 400 mcg
2,500 IU or 500 mcg
1,500 IU or 300 mcg
2,000 IU or 400 mcg

3,000 IU or 600 mcg
4,500 IU or 900 mcg
3,000 IU or 600 mcg
3,500 IU or 700 mcg
3,750 IU or 750 mcg
6,250 IU or 1250 mcg
Vitamin D  (Calciferol):
Vitamin D2  from plants (Ergocalciferol)
Vitamin D3  from animals (Cholecalciferol)
Vitamin A  (Retinol):
Vitamin A2  (3,4-dehydro-retinol),
Vitamin A3  (3-hydroxy-retinol)
Therapeutic Range for Beta carotene:    10,000 IU - 100,000 IU (ideally from mixed carotenoids).

Best time to take Carotenoids, Vitamin A, or Vitamin D:  Morning to afternoon; preferably with (fatty) food.
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Cellular / Intracellular Attributes and Interactions:
Vitamin D3:   Daily minimum intake recommended by many researchers for adults and
pregnant females living in the Northern Hemisphere is 2,000 - 4,000 IU (50 -100 mcg) / day.
Vitamin A Synergists:
Iron, manganese, Vitamin C, fats, conjugated linoleic
acid, [zinc,* Vitamin E,* alcohol*], [Vitamin D*].

Vitamin A Antagonists / Inhibitors:
Zinc, Vitamin E, mineral oil, [iron*], Vitamin D,*
alcohol, light, heat, air.  -  *dose-dependent.
Vitamin D Synergists:
Magnesium, boron, [selenium*], Vitamin C, Vitamin E,
lycopene, UV rays, [Vitamin A*], - *dose-dependent.

Vitamin D Antagonists / Inhibitors:
Calcium, strontium, Vitamin K, cadmium, Vitamin A,*
alcohol, mineral oil, oral steroids, Light = Vitamin D2.
Low Levels / Deficiency - Symptoms and/or Risk Factors:
Vitamin A:
Night blindness, eye disorders / blindness, weak
dental enamel, poor bone growth, dry / rough skin,
low resistance to infections, excessive mucus,
air-born allergies, bronchitis, bronchial asthma,
acne, higher risk for some cancers.
High levels / Overdose / Toxicity / Negative Side Effects - Symptoms and/or Risk Factors:
Vitamin A:
Birth defects (> 8,000 IU / day) osteoporosis, hair
loss, bone pain, elevated blood sugar, liver damage,
headaches, dizziness, double vision, bleeding gums,
seizures, confusion, dry / peeling skin, hydrocephaly,
dry cough, asthma, liver damage (> 25,000 IU / day).

Beta carotene:
Carotenemia or Carotenodermia (orange skin color).
A higher intake of preformed Vitamin A (retinol) may counter the protective effect of Vitamin D against the
development of several cancers (colon, pancreatic, breast, prostate, skin, lymph, gastric, among others), and
various other medical conditions.
However, a high dietary / supplemental intake of Vitamin D (not from UV ray exposure) may equally inhibit
the action of Vitamin A as a cancer preventive agent, as a chemotherapeutic adjunct in the treatment of
some malignant tumors,[89][87][88] or increase the risk of mucus-related conditions and reduced viral immunity.
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Vitamin A Sources (preformed):
Fish liver oils, liver, eggs, dairy products.

Beta carotene Sources (Provitamin A):
Carrots, broccoli, apricots, pumpkin, sweet potatoes,
spinach, squash, peppers, chlorella,  watermelon.
Vitamin D:
Rickets, osteomalacia, osteopenia, osteoporosis,
bone pain, weak muscles, muscle spasms / cramps,
cardiovascular disease, hypocalcemia (low serum
calcium), psoriasis, higher overall mortality.
Higher risk for some types of infections, cancers, or
multiple sclerosis.
Vitamin D:
Calcification of soft tissue (arteriosclerosis), bone
pain, osteoporosis, high blood pressure, weight loss,
loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, seizures,
retarded growth (physical & mental), skin erruptions,
kidney damage, headaches, constipation or diarrhea,
atrial fibrillation, allergies, inflammation of mucus
membranes, tetany of muscles.
May worsen symptoms of autoimmune diseases, 
conflicting research of higher risk for several cancers.
Low Levels / Deficiency - Symptoms and/or Risk Factors:
Bleeding, abnormal / prolonged blood clotting time, bruising, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, stroke,
calcification, behavioral problems, failure to grow and develop normally in infants.

Vitamin K3 only:

High levels / Overdose / Toxicity / Negative Side Effects - Symptoms and/or Risk Factors:
Liver impairment / damage, hemolytic anemia, stomach upset, skin rash, brain damage in infants.
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Vitamin K Sources:
Green tea, kale, collards, spinach, cauliflower, cabbage, alfalfa, soybeans, tomatoes, oats, liver, egg yolk,
meat, fish liver oils, blackstrap molasses.  Vitamin K is also made by intestinal bacteria. ¤
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Page 1  -  Calcium & Magnesium  information                                                                                        Page 2
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Vitamin K:
Vitamin K1

Vitamin K2

Vitamin K3
DRI (RDA):
0-6 months
6-12 months
1-3 years
4-8 years

9-13  years  males
14-18 years  males
19 +   years  males

9-13  years  females
14-18 years  females
19 +   years  females
pregnant
lactating
Best time to take Vitamin K:  Morning to evening; preferably with (fatty) food.
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Cellular / Intracellular Attributes and Interactions:
Vitamin K Synergists:
Calcium, copper, Vitamin B5, Vitamin D,
[(Bio)flavonoids].
(phylloquinone, phytonadione)  =  from plants sources

(menaquinone, menatetrenone)
MK4 = from animal sources (meat, eggs, dairy)
MK7 = from fermented food or intestinal bacteria

(menadione, menadiol, menaquinone, menaphthone)  =  synthetic
Vitamin K Antagonists:
Vitamin A, Vitamin E, mineral oil, oxalates, alcohol,
Coenzyme Q10, blood thinners / anticoagulants
(coumadin), Antibiotics - by killing intestinal bacteria.
Calcium:
DRI (RDA):
0-6 months
6-12 months
1-10 years

11-18 years  males
19  +  years  males

11-18 years  females
19-50 years  females
50  +  years  females
pregnant
lactating
200mg  AI
260mg  AI
700mg - 1200mg

1000mg - 1300mg
1000mg - 1200mg

1000mg - 1300mg
1000mg
1000mg - 1200mg

1000mg - 1300mg
1000mg - 1300mg
Magnesium:
DRI (RDA):
0-6 months
6-12 months
1-10 years

11-18 years  males
19  +  years  males
11-18 years  females
19-50 years  females
50  +  years  females
pregnant
lactating
30mg  AI
75mg  AI
80mg - 200mg

200mg - 410mg
400mg - 420mg

200mg - 360mg
310mg - 320mg
320mg

360mg - 400mg
310mg - 360mg
UL:                                 1000mg - 3000mg
Therapeutic Range:    250mg - 10,000mg
UL:                                  65mg - 360mg 
Therapeutic Range:     50mg - 2500mg
DRI (RDA):
0-6 months
6-12 months
1-3 years
4-8 years

9-13 years  males
14 + years  males

9-13 years  females
14 + years  females
pregnant
lactating
400 IU or 10 mcg
400 IU or 10 mcg
600 IU or 15 mcg
600 IU or 15 mcg

600 IU or 15 mcg
600-800 IU or 15-20 mcg
600 IU or 15 mcg
600-800 IU or 15-20 mcg
600 IU or 15 mcg
600 IU or 15 mcg
10 mcg
20 mcg
30 mcg
50 mcg

60 mcg
100 mcg
140 mcg

60 mcg
90 mcg
120 mcg

120 mcg
120 mcg
2.0 mcg  AI
2.5 mcg  AI
30 mcg   AI
50 mcg   AI

60 mcg   AI
75 mcg   AI
120 mcg  AI

60 mcg  AI
75 mcg  AI
90 mcg  AI

75 - 90 mcg  AI
75 - 90 mcg  AI
Therapeutic Range:          100 mcg - 45,000 mcg +          UL:  n/a
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2014  Dietary Reference Intake  (DRI) - Recommended Dietary Allowance / Intake  (RDA / RDI) for
Adults, Children, Pregnancy & Nursing - Adequate Intake  (AI) - Tolerable Upper Intake Level  (UL)
Best time to take Magnesium:  Late day / bedtime.
With food (preferably), or without food.
UL:                                       3,000 IU - 15,000 IU
Therapeutic Range:          5,000 IU - 100,000 IU
by Dr. Ronald Roth
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General recommendations for nutritional supplementation:  To avoid stomach problems and improve tolerance,
supplements should be taken earlier, or in the middle of a larger meal.  When taken on an empty stomach or
after a meal, there is a greater risk of some tablets causing irritation, or eventually erosion of the esophageal
sphincter, resulting in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD).  It is also advisable not to lie down right after
taking pills.  When taking a large daily amount of a single nutrient, it is better to split it up into smaller doses
to not interfere with the absorption of other nutrients in food, or nutrients supplemented at lower amounts.

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                 Copyright © 2000-2014  Acu-Cell Nutrition - DRI / RDA for Magnesium & Calcium + Vitamin A / D / K
Updated: 12. Apr. 2014
UL:                                       1,000 IU - 4,000 IU
Therapeutic Range:          5,000 IU - 100,000 IU