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Essential Trace Element / Mineral List
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Fluoride / Fluorine  &  Chloride / Chlorine

The information presented is based on Cellular trace mineral analysis - not Serum / Blood measurements.
RDA / DRI, synergists, antagonists, side effects, & additional deficiency / overdose symptoms are listed below.

Fluoride (F) and Chloride (Cl) are associated trace element / mineral pairs considered essential to human
health, although there is still controversy among some authorities in regard to the essentiality of fluoride and
its value in human nutrition.
Fluorine is a hardening component of bone and it is present at about 4% as calcium fluoride.  Too little has
a weakening effect on bone, while too much fluoride causes brittleness of bone and thus increases fracture
rates.  Fluoride is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract, however just as with chlorine, another route
of absorption may be through inhalation.

Nearly all the fluoride of soluble compounds such as sodium fluoride
may be absorbed when ingested with water, although the hardness
of water has some effect on fluoride uptake -- e.g. a high calcium or
magnesium content, or the presence of high levels of aluminum will
reduce the bioavailability of fluoride.
Approximately half the absorbed fluoride is excreted in the urine,
while most of the retained fluoride becomes part of bone and other
calcified tissues.  However, a reduced fluoride intake over a long
period of time will result in mobilization of bound fluoride from storage
sites, and subsequently lower concentrations in bone.
Much of the controversy surrounding fluoride comes from its legislated addition to city water in many munici-
palities in an effort to reduce tooth decay in children.  There are clearly two very divided camps arguing for
and against the benefits of fluoridation of municipal drinking water, with one side claiming a 30% -70%
reduction in tooth decay and reduced fractures with osteoporosis, while the other side refers to research
studies showing an increase in hip fractures instead, and proof that tooth decay declined as much in non-
fluoridated municipalities as in the fluoridated ones, and that the use of fluoride supplements by pregnant
women for instance offered no benefit to the baby.

In addition, they argue that in certain regions, there is an excess of fluoride, which has resulted in mottling
of teeth in children, and that numerous studies have implicated high fluoride intake as being responsible for
lowered IQ and learning ability.  There are also fluoridated and non-fluoridated city to city comparisons, where
statistics show thousands of cancer deaths attributable to mandatory fluoridation of public water systems.
Assessments of these studies prepared for the Canadian Government by the Faculty of Dentistry at the
University of Toronto had this to say regarding any correlation of high fluoride to lowered IQ and cancer:

   •  Re IQ:  "Recent studies emanating from China have claimed that children exposed to high levels of
      fluoride have lower IQ's than children exposed to low levels.  The two studies claiming such an effect
      are deeply flawed and provide no credible evidence that fluoride obtained from water or industrial
      pollution affects the intellectual development of children."

   •  Re Cancer: "The few studies published during the review period do not challenge earlier research
      showing that there is no reason to believe that exposure to fluoridated water increases the risk of cancer
      in bones or other body tissues.  While an ecological study did suggest an association with uterine cancer,
      the limitations of this kind of study in terms of linking exposures and outcomes in individuals, mean that
      it does not contradict the evidence derived from more systematic and scientifically credible case-control

A 1990 fluoride study suggested an increase in cancers [15] of the oral mucus membranes (squamous cell
carcinoma) in rats; a rare form of osteosarcoma appeared at double the rate in males as females; and there
was an increase in thyroid follicular cell tumors, and liver cancer.
However, a 1991 review by the U.S.Public Health Service concluded that there is no evidence that fluoride
causes cancer in humans.  The incidence of bone cancer in males below the age of 20 has risen since 1973,
but the panel concluded that this is not related to fluoridation.
The Public Health Service review recommended further studies to determine the relationship between
fluoride intake and bone fractures.  The National Research Council also concluded that current levels of
fluoride in drinking water do not increase the risk of kidney disease, birth defects or intestinal problems.
A number of European countries have now abandoned the fluoridation of public water systems, while the
controversy on this continent continues...
table of elements for fluorine and chlorine
Fluoride Synergists:
Carotenoids, Vitamin D, vanadium,
stomach acid, black tea, [chloride].
Fluoride Antagonists / Inhibitors:
Iodine, calcium, magnesium, aluminum, [chloride],
molybdenum, protein, milk.
Chloride Synergists:
Carotenoids, molybdenum, [fluoride].
Chloride Antagonists / Inhibitors:
Tin, calcium, magnesium, bromine, [fluoride],
Low Levels / Deficiency - Symptoms and/or Risk Factors:
Metabolic alkalosis, apathy, dehydration,
In children: slowed growth, delayed speech.
Increased bone fractures, fluorosis (discoloration /
mottling, pitting of teeth), osteosclerosis, tinnitus,
hearing loss, delayed brain development, tremors,
bone / arthritic pains, greater risk of some cancers,
skin rash, nausea, vomiting, gastrointestinal irritation,
stomach ulcers, convulsions, death.
High levels / Overdose / Toxicity / Negative Side Effects - Symptoms and/or Risk Factors:
Chlorine exists primarily as the chloride anion that joins with cations such as sodium to make salt (table
salt, or sodium chloride), and with hydrogen to make stomach acid (hydrochloric acid), but while chloride is
a constituent of stomach acid, high or low chloride levels are not an actual indicator of stomach acid levels.
It is necessary for protein digestion (pepsin), Vitamin B12 absorption (intrinsic factor), and absorption of
metallic minerals.
When stomach acid is neutralized, chloride is reabsorbed by the intestine and recycled.  Being one of the
electrolytes, chloride works closely with sodium and potassium and is part of the controlled regulation of
acid-alkaline balance.  Heavy perspiration can cause a considerable amount of sodium chloride and potassium
to be lost.
Chlorine is used in treating drinking water, swimming pools, hot tubs...etc, to kill bacteria and other micro-
organisms.  It is also a building block for PVC (polyvinyl chloride) and numerous other chemicals such as
antifreeze,  pesticides, refrigerants, and anti-knock compounds.  As sodium hypochlorite, or bleach, it is
widely used as a disinfectant and in bleaching.  Mixing bleach with other cleaning agents, such as ammonia,
can expose children or the elderly to dangerous gases.
Some studies claim that more than half of our harmful exposure to chlorine is due to the inhalation of steam
and skin absorption while showering, with the steam containing up to 50x the chemical levels compared to
drinking water, and with chlorine and most other contaminants vaporizing faster and at a lower temperature
than water.  In addition, inhaled chlorine gas (chloroform) goes directly into our blood stream, subsequently
bypassing the kidneys and digestive system where it would be partly filtered out.
There is also much concern about the levels of residual chlorine in drinking water, because excess chlorine
is thought to combine with certain organic water pollutants to form toxic chemicals and carcinogens such as
Several epidemiological studies, including research from the National Cancer Institute and 10 other organiza-
tions linked the chlorination of drinking water to increasing an individual's risk of developing bladder cancer,
with some of the studies [16] also claiming a higher incidence of Hodgkin's disease, colorectal, esophageal
and breast cancer.
According to these claims, women with breast cancer have 50 - 60% higher levels of organochlorines
(chlorination byproducts) in their breast tissue compared to women without breast cancer.  Chlorination has
also been associated with declining sperm counts, male infertility, and circulatory disturbances based on
some animal studies.

Fluoride & Chloride interact with some Carotenoids (beta-carotene), whereby sufficient intake of these
carotenoids positively affects the absorption of both elements.  As a result, and considering the widespread
use of fluoridated toothpastes, supplementation of fluoride for children in the form of drops or chewable
tablets (such as Fluor-A-Day) to reduce cavities is not necessary or advisable.
Low levels of fluoride and/or chloride tend to adversely affect bowel functions and sinuses, resulting in
greater incidences of inflammation and congested sinuses, so adequate carotenoid intake (including lutein,
for macular degeneration) is important for preventive or corrective purposes.
High levels of fluoride and/or chloride can trigger ringing / noises in the ear (tinnitus), and may eventually
lead to progressive hearing loss.  No extra beta-carotene should be supplemented in those instances, but
only preformed Vitamin A, if deficient.
When Potassium Supplementation is indicated, the use of non-chloride types such as Potassium Citrate
(K-Lyte) may be preferable for better tolerance, or where specific medical situations, such as osteoporosis,
polycystic kidney disease, or kidney stones may be aggravated by the use of Potassium Chloride.
On the other hand, individuals on a salt-restricted diet and a tendency for low stomach acid may do better
with chloride-types of potassium (Slow K), or chloride-types of other minerals they supplement. ¤

Cellular / Intracellular Attributes and Interactions:
Edema / fluid retention, hypertension / high
blood pressure, greater risk of some cancers,

Chlorine inhalation: Coughing, choking, chest
pains, pulmonary edema, asthma, headache,
blue discoloration of skin, nausea, vomiting.
Fluoride Sources:
Seafood, gelatin, black tea, tap water (some cities),
some mineral waters, most toothpastes, pesticides,
chewing tobacco, tamarind, some wines. ¤
Chloride Sources:
Salt, sea salt, vegetables, celery, tomatoes, olives,
lettuce, salt substitutes (KCl).

2017  Dietary Reference Intake  (DRI) - Recommended Dietary Allowance / Intake  (RDA / RDI) for
Adults, Children, Pregnancy & Nursing - Adequate Intake  (AI) - Tolerable Upper Intake Level  (UL)
Fluorine / Fluoride:
0-6 months
6-12 months
1-10 years

11-18 years  males
19-50 years  males
50 +   years  males

11-18 years  females
19-50 years  females
50  +  years  females
0.01mg  AI
0.50mg  AI
0.70mg - 1.50mg  AI

2mg - 3mg  AI
4mg  AI
4mg  AI

2mg - 3mg  AI
3mg  AI
3mg  AI

3mg  AI
3mg  AI
Chlorine / Chloride:
0-6 months
6-12 months
1-10 years

11-18 years  males
19-50 years  males
50 +   years  males
11-18 years  females
19-50 years  females
50  +  years  females

1g = 1,000mg

0.18g  AI
0.57g  AI
1.50g - 2.0g  AI

2.0g - 2.3g  AI
2.3g  AI
1.8g - 2.0g  AI

2.0g - 2.3g  AI
2.3g  AI
1.8g - 2.0g  AI

2.3g  AI
2.3g  AI
UL:                                    0.7mg - 10mg
Therapeutic Range:       2.0mg - 50mg

Best time to take Fluoride:  At bedtime, when taken
as lozenges.  Tablets: with, or without food (no dairy).
UL:                                      2.3g - 3.6g 
Therapeutic Range:         2.0g - 20g

Best time to take Chloride:  Morning and evening,
if taken as sodium chloride (for infants / children).

General recommendations for nutritional supplementation:  To avoid stomach problems and improve tolerance,
supplements should be taken earlier, or in the middle of a larger meal.  When taken on an empty stomach or
after a meal, there is a greater risk of some tablets causing irritation, or eventually erosion of the esophageal
sphincter, resulting in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD).  It is also advisable not to lie down right after
taking pills.  When taking a large daily amount of a single nutrient, it is better to split it up into smaller doses
to not interfere with the absorption of other nutrients in food, or nutrients supplemented at lower amounts.

                                              Copyright © 2000-2017  Acu-Cell Nutrition - Chloride & Fluoride
Updated: 01. Jan. 2017
Weakened bone, dental caries.

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