Acu-Cell Logo
healthy food
Essential Trace Element / Mineral List
     Home    Sitemap    Links & Downloads    Flu Remedies                        The Clinical Resource for Cellular Nutrition & Trace Mineral Analysis
     Acu-Cell Analysis    Acu-Cell Nutrition    Acu-Cell Disorders    Mineral Ratios    Diets & MLM    Tin - Health Effects    Spiritual Health

Acu-Cell Nutrition


Bismuth & Lithium

The information presented is based on Cellular trace mineral analysis - not Serum / Blood measurements.
RDA / DRI, synergists, antagonists, side effects, & additional deficiency / overdose symptoms are listed below.

Bismuth (Bi) and Lithium (Li) are associated trace elements.  While bismuth is not classified as essential for
humans at this time, lithium is a nutritionally essential trace element with a potential to decrease mortality,
and provide anti-aging capabilities.[92]
Although not related on the Periodic Table of Elements, bismuth and lithium are biologically associated on a
gastrointestinal and mental health level.  While lithium is better known for its therapeutic properties with bi-
polar / manic-depressive disorder, both elements exert a similar effect on their respective chemical environ-
ment:  Lithium in regard to potassium / sodium balance, and bismuth in regard to phosphorus / zinc balance.
Shared toxicity / overdose symptoms of bismuth and lithium
include kidney or liver damage, hypoadrenalism (bismuth), hypo-
thyroidism (lithium), mental confusion, staggering gait, tremor,
memory problems, and others.  Magnesium can be used to treat
lithium overdose, while calcium can be used to treat bismuth
In addition to treating patients with Manic-Depressive Illness,
lithium has been used with some success for Ménière's disease,
Huntington's Chorea, and alcoholism.  In animal models, lithium
has been reportedto be beneficial for brain injury, spinal cord injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and ALS
(amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), whereby recent clinical trials suggest hat lithium may stop the progression
of ALS.

Raising below-normal levels of lithium or bismuth can, but does not have to produce any positive effects in
regard to mental health, since few lithium or bismuth-deficient individuals present with actual mental illness,
although some researchers claim that areas with the highest lithium levels in drinking water have the lowest
rates of homicides, and the lowest mental hospital admissions (those findings have not been officially
When indeed indicated for bipolar disorder,[12] patients typically present with low lithium levels and very
high sodium levels, whereby lithium provides a balancing effect.  The intake of higher amounts of lithium has
a tendency to raise sodium, and frequently also potassium through its effect on kidney functions, and it has a
tendency to raise manganese through its effect on liver functions (which depresses thyroid activity), so there
is a distinct biochemical conflict that has a genetic basis, otherwise everyone with low lithium levels - which
are actually quite common - would be suffering from manic-depressive episodes.
Regardless, it is estimated that lithium resolves Manic Depression in about one third of patients; it is said
to improve the lives of another third, and is ineffective for the rest.
Bismuth and Lithium frequently test low in patients who suffer from low stomach acid levels corresponding
to upper (bismuth) and lower (lithium) parts of the stomach, and they are invariably always low in those with
an active infection of the Helicobacter Pylori bacterium, which is responsible for some gastric ulcers and a
number of other medical conditions (see "H. Pylori" for details).
Bismuth, through its antimicrobial action, is more appropriate for peptic involvement to inhibit H. Pylori
activity, where it supports an increase in upper stomach acid levels, while lithium is more indicated for lower
gastric / duodenal involvement, where it supports an increase in lower stomach acid levels. ¤

Cellular / Intracellular Attributes and Interactions:
Lithium Synergists:
Silicon, manganese, cobalt, sodium, Vitamin D,
* [Vitamin C].

Lithium Antagonists / Inhibitors:
Magnesium, chromium,

* [inositol, caffeine, sodium, vanadium].
* with chemical imbalances (bipolar disorder).
Low Levels (Deficiency - Symptoms and/or Risk Factors) Therapeutic Indications:
Bismuth Synergists:
Germanium, iron,  nickel, phosphorus,
Vitamin D.

Bismuth Antagonists / Inhibitors:
Calcium, copper.
bismuth tabs and lithium caps
Gastrointestinal disorders, low stomach acid
(lower part of stomach), heartburn, bloating,
Bipolar / manic-depressive disorder.
Gastrointestinal disorders, low stomach acid,
(upper part of stomach), heartburn, bloating,
calcification, warts, diarrhea, gastric ulcers.
High levels / Overdose / Toxicity / Negative Side Effects - Symptoms and/or Risk Factors:
Mental confusion, tremors, kidney failure, colitis,
staggering gait, muscle twitching, slurring speech,
hypoadrenalism, encephalopathy, hearing / visual
disturbances, hallucinations, coma, death.
Nausea, vomiting, weight gain, staggering gait,
hypothyroidism / goiter, tremors, liver disease,
kidney disease, frequent urination, lethargy, edema,
diarrhea, slurring speech, brain damage, death.
Bismuth Sources:
Water, foods, cosmetics, stomach remedies.  Derived
as a smelting by-product of various other metals.
Lithium Sources:
Some mineral waters, seaweed, fish, sugarcane,
nightshade plants, milk, eggs, meat. ¤

2017  Dietary Reference Intake  (DRI) - Recommended Dietary Allowance / Intake  (RDA / RDI) for
Adults, Children, Pregnancy & Nursing - Adequate Intake  (AI) - Tolerable Upper Intake Level  (UL)


DRI (RDA):    none
0-12 months
1-10 years 
11-18 years  males
19  +  years  males
11-18 years  females
19  +  years  females

pregnant / lactating

25 mcg - 100 mcg
25 mcg - 100 mcg

25 mcg - 100 mcg
25 mcg - 100 mcg

25 mcg - 50 mcg
DRI (RDA):   none
0-12 months
1-10 years

11-18 years  males
19  +  years  males
11-18 years  females
19  +  years  females

pregnant / lactating
Estimated daily intake of Bismuth from food and
water is 2 mcg -  30 mcg / day.
UL:                                        n/a
Therapeutic Range:           524mg - 4,200mg

Best time to take Bismuth:  Anytime - as needed;
with food / after meals (preferably), or without food.

1,000 mcg
1,000 mcg

1,000 mcg
1,000 mcg

1,000 mcg
1mg = 1,000 mcg
UL:                                    n/a
Therapeutic Range:       400mg - 2,400 mg

Best time to take Lithium:  Anytime - as prescribed,
or by tolerance, with food.
Estimated daily intake of Lithium from food and
water is 500 mcg - 3,000 mcg / day.

The intake of therapeutic levels of Bismuth and Lithium is contraindicated during pregnancy & breastfeeding.

General recommendations for nutritional supplementation:  To avoid stomach problems and improve tolerance,
supplements should be taken earlier, or in the middle of a larger meal.  When taken on an empty stomach or
after a meal, there is a greater risk of some tablets causing irritation, or eventually erosion of the esophageal
sphincter, resulting in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD).  It is also advisable not to lie down right after
taking pills.  When taking a large daily amount of a single nutrient, it is better to split it up into smaller doses
to not interfere with the absorption of other nutrients in food, or nutrients supplemented at lower amounts.

                                              Copyright © 2000-2017  Acu-Cell Nutrition - Lithium & Bismuth
Updated: 01. Jan. 2017

This site uses cookies from advertisers (e.g. Google) to deliver its services, to personalize ads, and to analyze
traffic.  Continued use of this site constitutes acceptance of cookies in accordance with the EU Cookie Policy.