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Essential Trace Element / Mineral List
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Acu-Cell Nutrition


Germanium & Silicon / Silica

The information presented is based on Cellular trace mineral analysis - not Serum / Blood measurements.
RDA / DRI, synergists, antagonists, side effects, & additional deficiency / overdose symptoms are listed below.

Germanium (Ge) and Silicon (Si) are associated trace elements.  While silicon is considered essential for
humans, germanium has not been designated as essential at this time, although it should be, since like other
essential trace minerals, it has its own cell receptor, and with silicon, affects aspects of the immune system,
blood-thinning, as well as joint, and cardiovascular integrity.  Silicon is usually supplemented as Silica (SiO2)
in the form of Silica Gel, or it is derived from horsetail (a herb) in capsules or tablets, while germanium is
generally supplied in its specially processed Organic Germanium (Ge-132) form.

Silicon is present in more than one fourth of the earth's crust and is widely
distributed in the soil, plants and water.  In the body, silicon is found in highest
concentrations in connective tissues such as cartilage, tendons, collagen, blood
vessels (particularly the aorta), eyes, the trachea, hair, dental enamel, bone,[19]
and skin, specifically the epidermis.

Silicon-deficient diets resulted in retarded growth, poor bone development,
and more atherosclerotic arterial plaques in animal studies.  Silicon has a similar
healing potential on cartilage and joint degeneration as Sulfur, so both can be
helpful for various types of arthritis.
Next to Bioflavonoids, silicon (or silica) helps in keeping blood vessel walls
healthy, and it has been found that silicon concentrations of the thymus, skin,
aorta and other arterial vessels decrease with increasing age and with the onset of atherosclerosis, which is
reversible to some extent with oral or intravenous doses of silicon.  Silica promotes the union of bone after
a fracture, in contrast to calcium, which can actually slow the healing process or interfere with it altogether
when calcium levels are on the high side.  In contrast to nutritional forms of silicon, "Silicone" products - with
an "e" at the end - are manufactured  siloxane polymers.

Silica (silicon dioxide) can be taken either internally, or applied externally as Slica Gel.  Potential side effects
from the internal use of silica gel include stomach, or skin irritations, while silica from horsetail extract is well
tolerated, although some skin changes may develop on very rare occasions with excessive supplementation.

Additional rich sources of Silicon / Silica are various types of edible clay (medicinal earth), such as as Argital
clay, Argiletz clay, Bentonite (Terramin, Montmorillonite, Pascalite, Redmond, Wyoming) clay, Luvos Heilerde
(a German clay), Illite clay, Kaolin clay, and a number of other clays, with the silica content varying consider-
ably between clay formulations and their mineral composition:
silica supplement from horsetail
Clay comes in a variety of colors - white, green, grey, blue, red, pink, yellow - all of which indicate higher
levels of specific elements, with red clay for instance, containing more iron oxide.  All types of clay have an
anti-inflammatory effect, help neutralize toxic metals or pathogens from the digestive tract, and promote a
healthy gut flora.  It is important to choose a quality clay product free of toxic contaminants.

To avoid constipation, powdered clay should be taken with sufficient amounts
of water, or bought in hydrated (liquid) form.  For instance, sodium bentonite
has a greater swelling capacity, and can therefore be more constipating than
white kaolin clay.  Edible clay is highly beneficial for people suffering from foul-
smelling stools, flatulence / intestinal gas, chronic diarrhea, ulcerative colitis,
Crohn's disease, or IBS (irritable bowel syndrome).

Other uses of clay range from treatments for anemia, skin blemishes, yeast infections, or morning sickness,
all the way to being a superior remedy for bone loss.[43]  Because of its ability to inhibit or neutralize toxic and
non-toxic compounds in the body, clay should be used with caution, or under medical supervision when
taking prescribed medications, since their potency may be affected by the internal use of clay.
Germanium Synergists:
Phosphorus, iron, manganese, Vitamin C, niacinamide,
niacin, omega 3 essential fatty acids (EFAs), alcohol,
Germanium Antagonists / Inhibitors:
Calcium, zinc, copper, pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5),
all simple carbs / sugar (except alcohol).
Silicon Synergists:
Sodium, manganese, iron, Vitamin E, Vitamin B1,
choline, omega 6 essential fatty acids.
Silicon Antagonists / Inhibitors:
Magnesium, potassium, chromium, Vitamin B2,
Vit B5, Vit B6, saturated fats, transfatty acids.
Germanium (Ge) used to be readily available around the globe, but it was taken off the shelves in a number
of countries after some practitioners, and patients themselves, started using it to treat cancer,[20] and after
reports of kidney damage surfaced from using germanium dioxide (not germanium lactate / citrate),
following its supplementation.
However, the organo-germanium form, bis-carboxyethyl germanium sesquioxide (Ge-132), developed by
Kazuhiko Asaia of Japan in 1967, is a safe and effective compound that can be used for a variety of medical
problems ranging from viral infections to cancer, which require improved oxygenation and immune support.
GE-132 is further known to enhance the immune system by stimulating the
production of natural killer cells and lymphokines such as IFN (Y), interferon,
macrophages, and T-suppressor cells.
Both, germanium and silicon have somewhat of a blood thinning effect:
Germanium, by inhibiting calcium and increasing phosphorus, - and silicon,
by inhibiting magnesium and increasing sodium retention.  Individuals who
most benefit from extra germanium (provided its levels are below-normal)
are those who would generally also benefit from the blood-thinning effect
of alcohol, but for whatever reason will not, or cannot consume any.

They include people with either very high VLDL triglyceride levels, below-
normal protein or phosphorus levels, very high calcium levels, and/or those
individuals suffering from poor peripheral circulation due to atherosclerosis.
Blood thinners, omega 3 EFAs, and alcohol increase germanium levels, while
with the exception of alcohol, all simple sugars or carbs - but not complex carbs - reduce germanium levels.
On average, there is typically an inverse relationship between low germanium, and raised VLDL triglycerides.

With some variation, the same principle of what applies to germanium also applies to silicon.  Blood thinners
and alcohol increase silicon levels, however, instead of an omega 3 EFA / germanium interaction, there is an
omega 6 EFA / silicon interaction, where one helps raise the other (and vice versa), while saturated fats and
transfatty acids (but not polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fats) inhibit silicon.  There is also an inverse
relationship between low silicon levels and raised LDL cholesterol.
Calcium is the most potent germanium antagonist, with phosphorus being synergistic with germanium, while
magnesium is the most potent silicon antagonist, with sodium being synergistic with silicon.  This mutual
calcium-germanium and magnesium-silicon antagonism however only takes place at close to normal levels.
As calcium levels become excessively high, they will progressively inhibit germanium absorption to a point
where supplementation of even larger amounts of germanium will no longer result in increased levels, neither
will germanium be able to lower calcium any longer.
Likewise, excessive magnesium intake will increasingly inhibit silicon absorption, no matter how much silicon
is supplemented, and at which point silicon will no longer be able to lower magnesium. Only by raising sodium
or phosphorus levels (and decreasing magnesium and/or calcium intake) is it possible to raise germanium or
silicon levels again, following the inhibiting action of phosphorus on calcium, and/or sodium on magnesium.
Provided levels match requirements, some Leg Ulcers respond to germanium supplementation when used for
left-sided cases, and silicon / silica supplementation when used for right-sided cases.  Leg ulcers (on either
side) also benefit from Activated Charcoal dressings, or the topical application of Medicinal Clay. ¤
Cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, higher
risk for several cancers, osteoporosis, arthritis,
weakened immune system, decreased oxygen.
Silicon / Silica:
Cartilage / joint degeneration, osteoporosis,
dry / brittle nails and hair, headaches, cardio-
vascular disease, vascular degeneration.

Silica helps in the maintenance of healthy-looking
hair, healthy connective tissue and blood vessel
walls, and strong bones and nails.
Bruising, skin rash, peripheral neuropathy, weight loss,
decreased RBC count, neurotoxicity, liver damage,
kidney damage (high doses of inorganic germanium).
Silicon / Silica:
Bruising, stomach irritations (silica gel), skin
rashes / irritations.

By Inhalation:  Silicosis.
From Horsetail:  Low potassium, dehydration,
Vitamin B1 deficiency, may produce symptoms
of nicotine exposure due to nicotine content.
Silicon / Silica Sources:
Horsetail, whole grains, oats, rice, barley, onions,
lettuce, beer, well water, comfrey, root vegetables,
nettle, edible clay / medicinal earth. ¤
Germanium Sources:
Ginseng, garlic, aloe vera, sushi, comfrey, chlorella,
watercress, waternut, boxthorn, onions, whole wheat,
Reishi and shiitake mushrooms, dairy, meat.

Cellular / Intracellular Attributes and Interactions:
Low Levels (Deficiency - Symptoms and/or Risk Factors) Therapeutic Indications:
High levels / Overdose / Toxicity / Negative Side Effects - Symptoms and/or Risk Factors:

2017  Dietary Reference Intake  (DRI) - Recommended Dietary Allowance / Intake  (RDA / RDI) for
Adults, Children, Pregnancy & Nursing - Adequate Intake  (AI) - Tolerable Upper Intake Level  (UL)


DRI (RDA):    none
0-12 months
1-10 years
11-18 years  males
19  +  years  males
11-18 years  females
19  +  years  females

2mg - 3mg
2mg - 3mg

2mg - 3mg
2mg - 3mg
Silicon / Silica:
DRI (RDA):    none
0-12 months
1-10 years

11-18 years  males
19  +  years  males
11-18 years  females
19  + years  females
0.3mg - 0.5mg *
1mg - 5mg

10mg - 25mg
10mg - 25mg

10mg - 25mg
10mg - 25mg
Estimated daily intake of Germanium from food and
water is 0.5mg - 2mg / day.

Germanium requirements increase with simple sugar
intake, and they decrease with alcohol intake.
Estimated daily intake of Silicon / Silica from food
and water is 5mg - 20mg / day.

* based on Silicon content in human breast milk.
UL:                                        n/a
Therapeutic Range:           25mg - 3,000mg

Best time to take Germanium:  Earlier in the day,
with some food to prevent stomach upsets, but not at
the same time with germanium antagonists listed below:
UL:                                        760mg (elemental)
Therapeutic Range:           10mg - 300mg +
In the form of Horsetail:   500mg - 6,000mg

Best time to take Silicon / Silica:  Anytime during
the day, with some food, but not at the same time
with silicon / silica antagonists listed below:
Percentages are approximate

Silicon Dioxide / Silica - SiO2
Aluminum Oxide - Al2O3
Ferric Oxide / Iron - Fe2O3
Calcium Oxide - CaO
Magnesium Oxide - MgO
Sodium Oxide - Na2O
Potassium Oxide - K2O
Titanium Oxide - TiO2

28 %
  5 %
2 %
9 %
1 %
1 %
> 1 %
< 1 %

43 %
15 %
4 %
14 %
2 %
< 1 %
2 %
1 %

46 %
37 %
< 1 %
< 1 %
< 1 %
< 1 %
< 1 %
< 1 %

55 - 65 %
9 - 21 %
2 - 7 %
< 1 - 5 %
1 - 10 %
1 - 4 %
< 1 - 3 %
< 1 - 1 %

General recommendations for nutritional supplementation:  To avoid stomach problems and improve tolerance,
supplements should be taken earlier, or in the middle of a larger meal.  When taken on an empty stomach or
after a meal, there is a greater risk of some tablets causing irritation, or eventually erosion of the esophageal
sphincter, resulting in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD).  It is also advisable not to lie down right after
taking pills.  When taking a large daily amount of a single nutrient, it is better to split it up into smaller doses
to not interfere with the absorption of other nutrients in food, or nutrients supplemented at lower amounts.

                                      Copyright © 2000-2017  Acu-Cell Nutrition - Silicon / Silica & Germanium
spoonful of clay powder
Ge-132 germanium supplement
Updated: 01. Jan. 2017

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