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Essential Trace Element / Mineral List
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The information presented is based on Cellular trace element analysis - not Serum / Blood measurements.
RDA / DRI, synergists, antagonists, side effects and deficiency / overdose / toxicity symptoms are listed below.

Boron (B) has not been officially designated to be essential to human health at this time, however boron is
an essential macronutrient for higher plant forms, and there are some indications that it could be classified as
essential for humans in the future.

A number of research studies have shown that boron increases cognitive performance,[29] and that it can
be an effective addition in the treatment of osteoporosis by promoting healthy bone metabolism, including
efficient use of calcium and magnesium, and proper function of the endocrine system (ovaries, testes and
adrenals).  There is also some evidence that parts of the world with low levels of boron in the soil have a
higher percentage of people suffering from arthritis in comparison  to regions with higher soil levels of boron.

Some researchers believe boron to have estrogen-like properties (by raising plasma
estradiol), while other researchers claim boron to have testosterone-like properties,
referring to reports of hair loss in males after its supplementation.  While most studies
present evidence of both, boron does not seem to offer any benefits with menopausal
symptoms, so it appears that the estrogen / testosterone ratio would be in favor of a
testosterone dominance, which is also supported by the fact that boron lowers
manganese, which does have proven estrogen-like attributes.

With boron now being found in many multi-mineral formulations, some individuals may
feel that the hormonal effect (i.e. hair loss) is a concern, so they should look for a
brand that contains a lesser amount of boron, or none at all.

The trials I have run with boron showed that it increases calcium & magnesium retention, but at the expense
of lowering manganese, which is one of the co-factors that helps calcium uptake (high manganese can result
in calcium and magnesium loss).  So realistically, the only circumstances which would justify the use of boron
for osteoporosis - or any other condition - are situations where patients suffer from congestive liver disease,
resulting in high manganese levels, which would subsequently cause calcium (and magnesium) depletion.  ¤
boron supplement

2017  Dietary Reference Intake  (DRI) - Recommended Dietary Allowance / Intake  (RDA / RDI) for
Adults, Children, Pregnancy & Nursing - Adequate Intake  (AI) - Tolerable Upper Intake Level  (UL)



Cellular / Intracellular Attributes and Interactions:
Boron Synergists:   Copper.

Boron Antagonists / Inhibitors:   Manganese, calcium.

Low Levels / Therapeutic (Deficiency) Indications for Boron:
Claims of decreased mental alertness in men women and men past the age of 45, increased magnesium
and calcium requirements, decreased bone density, greater risk for prostate cancer.

High levels / Overdose / Toxicity / Negative Side Effects - Symptoms and/or Risk Factors:
Vitamin B6 / Pyridoxine deficiency, Vitamin B2 / Riboflavin-like deficiencies (skeletal abnormalities), diarrhea,
nausea, vomiting, anemia, dermatitis, ovarian / testicular abnormalities, edema, seizures, gastrointestinal
disturbances, fatigue, cold-like symptoms.

Toxicity is somewhat dependent on an individual's kidney functions and may cause boron accumulation in
kidneys, lungs, bone, liver, heart, brain, fatty tissue, parathyroid and reproductive glands.

Boron Sources:   Apples, pears, grapes, non-citrus fruit, legumes, nuts, wine, vegetables, avocado. ¤
DRI (RDA):    none
0-12 months
1-3 years
4-8 years

9-13 years   males
14-18 years  males
19  +  years  males

9-13 years   females
14-18 years  females
19  +  years  females

3mg  UL
6mg  UL

11mg  UL
17mg  UL
20mg  UL

11mg  UL
17mg  UL
20mg  UL

17-20mg  UL
17-20mg  UL
NOTE:  A Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is the highest level
of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse
health effects to almost all individuals in the general population.

Unless otherwise specified, the UL represents total intake from
food, water, and supplements.

Estimated daily intake of Boron from food and water
(exluding cosmetics and supplements) is 2mg - 4mg / day.

Therapeutic Range:          3mg - 20mg +

Best time to take Boron:  Any time during the day, with food.

General recommendations for nutritional supplementation:  To avoid stomach problems and improve tolerance,
supplements should be taken earlier, or in the middle of a larger meal.  When taken on an empty stomach or
after a meal, there is a greater risk of some tablets causing irritation, or eventually erosion of the esophageal
sphincter, resulting in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD).  It is also advisable not to lie down right after
taking pills.  When taking a large daily amount of a single nutrient, it is better to split it up into smaller doses
to not interfere with the absorption of other nutrients in food, or nutrients supplemented at lower amounts.

                                                     Copyright © 2000-2017  Acu-Cell Nutrition - Boron
Updated: 01. Jan. 2017

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