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Vanadium & Molybdenum

The information presented is based on Cellular trace element analysis - not Serum / Blood measurements.
RDA / DRI, synergists, antagonists, side effects, & additional deficiency / overdose symptoms are listed below.

Vanadium (V) and Molybdenum (Mo) are associated trace elements.  While molybdenum has been classified
as essential to human health, there is still controversy among some researchers regarding the essentiality of
vanadium, and its value in human nutrition.  When vanadium or molybdenum test below normal, most of the
time - at least in developed parts of the world - it is as a result of their antagonists being too high, and less
often because of insufficient dietary intake.

Chromium and copper are one of the closest associated trace element pairs,
so with copper being virtually always higher than chromium, molybdenum
- being a copper antagonist - is nearly as often lower than vanadium.  One
exception may be excessive sugar intake, which has a tendency to deplete
chromium, and to a lesser extent vanadium (chromium and vanadium are also
antagonists, but share similar attributes toward insulin / glucose management).

Excessive copper levels are generally found with many joint degenerative-
types of conditions, whereby next to sulfur-rich supplements, molybdenum
and chromium can be helpful with these arthritic disorders as a result of their
ability to lower copper.  When molybdenum and/or vanadium levels are far
below normal, there is a greater occurrence of spinal degeneration - with or
without the presence of high copper, although when copper is very high also,
it very likely has been a contributing factor.

Ankylosing Spondylitis is a classic example where both, molybdenum and vanadium are excessively low,
and their antagonists are excessively high.  In addition, calcium and magnesium are very high as well (which
will have a degenerative effect when elevated), contributing to the degenerative nature of this condition:
liquid molybdenum supplement

2017  Dietary Reference Intake  (DRI) - Recommended Dietary Allowance / Intake  (RDA / RDI) for
Adults, Children, Pregnancy & Nursing - Adequate Intake  (AI) - Tolerable Upper Intake Level  (UL)
In addition to very low molybdenum oftentimes accompanying various forms of spinal degeneration, ongoing
dizziness is another factor with craniocervical disturbances, or those of the cranial ganglia, and it isn't always
clear which came first - the symptoms, or the low molybdenum - unless a known injury triggered the problem.
Nevertheless, if matched to the problem, I have seen molybdenum relieve the dizziness within a few hours
following its supplementation.
To a much lesser extent the above also applies to vanadium - at least in theory.  In practice, vanadium rarely
becomes as deficient as molybdenum.  In fact, it is very uncommon that vanadium would require supplemen-
tation at all (ankylosing spondylitis being a rare exception), because of the chemical interactions it is part of,
and where molybdenum and chromium levels would both have to be much higher than vanadium.

Cellular / Intracellular Attributes and Interactions:
Vanadium Synergists:
Selenium (see text above), zinc, fluoride.

Vanadium Antagonists / Inhibitors:
Chromium, chloride, calcium, potassium, iodine,
sodium, sulfur, sugar.
Molybdenum Synergists:
Sulfur (see text above), potassium, chloride.

Molybdenum Antagonists / Inhibitors:
Copper, fluoride, magnesium, zinc, tungsten, tin,
phosphorus, selenium.
Low Levels / Deficiency - Symptoms and/or Risk Factors:
Spinal degeneration, ankylosing spondylitis (with
elevated molybdenum, calcium and magnesium),
reduced growth and reproductive ability in animals,
elevated cholesterol.
Spinal degeneration, ankylosing spondylitis
(with high vanadium, calcium and magnesium),
higher risk for several cancers, insufficient uric
acid, elevated triglycerides.
Gastrointestinal problems, weakened immune system,
fatigue, green tongue, trabecular bone loss, arthritis,
aching bones, teeth, tonsils, ears, jaw; chronic colds.
High levels / Overdose / Toxicity / Negative Side Effects - Symptoms and/or Risk Factors:
Skin eruptions / itchy skin, inflammatory spinal / joint
disease, trabecular bone loss, decreased growth in
all species.
Acute supplemental molybdenum toxicity (one case):
Insomnia, seizures, psychosis, hallucinations.

Vanadium Sources:

Mushrooms, vegetable oils, fats, olives, black pepper,
seafood, beer wine, grains.

Molybdenum Sources:

Legumes, lentils, beans and soybeans, cauliflower, grains, nuts, organ meats. ¤
Molybdenum is a component of xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and sulfite oxidase, which are impor-
tant enzyme systems.  Xanthine oxidase is involved in converting nucleic acid to uric acid, a waste product
of protein / purine metabolism, and although elevated uric acid can cause gouty attacks in prone individuals,
normal uric acid levels are actually beneficial, as they have antioxidative properties and protect cells from
free radicals.
I have not seen moderate molybdenum supplementation cause gout [27] in patients who exhibited low levels
of molybdenum even when they were prone for suffering from gout attacks, however very high molybdenum
intake is capable of triggering inflammatory joint disease.

Aldehyde oxidase helps in the oxidation of carbohydrates, and sulfite oxidase helps to detoxify sulfites,
which used to be common food preservatives (salad bars), and which some sensitive individuals have a
severe allergic reaction to.  While sulfur and molybdenum compete for uptake in plants, supplementing
either one in humans helps uptake of the other by inhibiting copper, which is an antagonist to sulfur and
molybdenum, so for practical purposes (and confirmed in thousands of clinical applications), they work as
synergists with one another.  There is an identical relationship between vanadium and selenium against
chromium, resulting in the same synergism.

In animal studies, Vanadium has been found to function similarly to insulin by helping to maintain blood
glucose levels the same as in the control group, despite lower serum insulin, while at the same time making
cell membrane insulin receptors more sensitive to insulin.  In human studies, daily insulin requirements in
Type I diabetics decreased by as much as 14%, and in Type II diabetics, there was an increase in insulin
sensitivity observed following vanadium treatments using either vanadyl sulfate or sodium metavanadate.

So why don't doctors tell their patients to supplement vanadium in order to reduce insulin requirements?
Perhaps some studies just don't compare to clinical applications in the real world.  My own patient feedback
has not been favorable to vanadium supplementation so far for diabetes.  Instead of reducing insulin require-
ments, blood sugar had gone up following vanadium supplementation!

Both, vanadium and molybdenum have anticarcinogenic (anti-cancer) properties
in regard to breast cancer (V + Mo) in animal models, and esophageal cancer and
stomach cancer (Mo) in humans, which may be due to the copper-inhibiting effect
of molybdenum, or possibly by molybdenum protecting the body from nitrosamine
formation as a result of consuming foods (meats or vegetables) high in nitrates or
According to some sources, supplementing vanadium has the potential to improve
athletic performance because of the anabolic effect of vanadyl sulfate being similar
to insulin (supposedly resulting in higher liver and muscle glycogen stores), however
the validity of that claim is not universally accepted.  For individuals suffering from
bipolar / manic-depressive illness, there is evidence of possible adverse effects from
increased vanadium intake due to its causative or aggravating impact on reduced
sodium pump activity.

Short of minimal amounts present in some multi-mineral formulations, the effects of supplementing higher
amounts of vanadium (as vanadyl sulphate) on a regular basis - when not indicated - can have detrimental
side effects that may include anything from various aches and pains and flu-like symptoms (partly as a result
of inhibiting chromium), to eventually vanadium causing all kinds of bizarre, chemical imbalances.  Supple-
menting higher amounts of vanadium can also cause a very noticeable green discoloration of the tongue. ¤
DRI (RDA):    none
0-12 months
1-10 years 
11-18 years  males
19  +  years  males
11-18 years  females
19  +  years  females

10 mcg - 50 mcg

50 mcg - 100 mcg
50 mcg - 100 mcg

50 mcg - 100 mcg
50 mcg - 100 mcg
0-12 months
1-10 years

11-18 years  males
19  +  years  males
11-18 years  females
19  + years  females
2 mcg - 3mcg  AI
17 mcg - 30 mcg

35 mcg - 43 mcg
45 mcg

35 mcg - 43 mcg
45 mcg

50 mcg
50 mcg
1mg = 1,000 mcg
UL:                                    300 mcg - 2,000 mcg 
Therapeutic Range:       500 mcg - 2,500 mcg +

Best time to take Molybdenum: Anytime during the
day.  May be taken with, or without food - depending
on whether molybdenum is taken as drops or tablets.
UL:                                       1,800 mcg
Therapeutic Range:          10mg - 125mg

Best time to take Vanadium:  Anytime, with food.
Some sources recommend to take Vanadyl Sulfate
on an empty stomach.
Estimated daily intake of Vanadium from food and
water is 6 mcg - 18 mcg / day.
Vanadium / Vanadyl Sulfate:
Estimated daily intake of Molybdenum from food
and water is 100 mcg - 500 mcg / day.

General recommendations for nutritional supplementation:  To avoid stomach problems and improve tolerance,
supplements should be taken earlier, or in the middle of a larger meal.  When taken on an empty stomach or
after a meal, there is a greater risk of some tablets causing irritation, or eventually erosion of the esophageal
sphincter, resulting in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD).  It is also advisable not to lie down right after
taking pills.  When taking a large daily amount of a single nutrient, it is better to split it up into smaller doses
to not interfere with the absorption of other nutrients in food, or nutrients supplemented at lower amounts.

                                       Copyright © 2000-2017  Acu-Cell Nutrition - Molybdenum & Vanadium
Typical mineral pattern with Ankylosing Spondylitis
Vanadyl sulfate supplement
Updated: 01. Jan. 2017

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