Acu-Cell Logo
healthy food
Essential Trace Element / Mineral List
     Home    Sitemap    Links & Downloads    Flu Remedies                        The Clinical Resource for Cellular Nutrition & Trace Mineral Analysis
     Acu-Cell Analysis    Acu-Cell Nutrition    Acu-Cell Disorders    Mineral Ratios    Diets & MLM    Tin - Health Effects    Spiritual Health

Acu-Cell Nutrition

                              

Bromine / Bromide


The information presented is based on Cellular trace element analysis - not Serum / Blood measurements.
RDA / DRI, synergists, antagonists, side effects and deficiency / overdose / toxicity symptoms are listed below.


Bromine (Br) has not been officially designated to be essential for humans at this time, however there have
been reports of reduced growth, fertility, and life expectancy in some animals as a result of hyperthyroidism
secondary to dietary deficiency of bromide.

In humans and animals, Bromine - either as Sodium Bromide, or Potassium Bromide - has anti-seizure
properties, and it is an effective trace mineral in the treatment of hyperthyroid conditions.
Many marine plants, particularly kelp, are a rich source of bromine and iodine, so depending on their bromine
to iodine ratio, and whether someone is hypothyroid or hyperthyroid, this can have a beneficial or unfavorable
effect on thyroid functions when regularly consumed.

When reports of hypothyroidism cases surfaced as a result of
certain cultures regularly consuming seaweed (such as Kelp),
some researchers believed the high iodine content in those marine
plants to be the reason.  However, it was most likely the bromine
content, or a high bromine / iodine ratio in the plants compared to
those of other regions, or that these same people possibly also
consumed higher amounts of "goitrogenic" vegetables such as lima
beans, cassava, cabbage, sweet potatoes, rutabaga, which can
result in depressed iodine / thyroid functions.  On average, most
varieties of kelp tend to increase thyroid functions.

In hyperthyroidism, where milder forms of nutritional therapy such as PABA or magnesium have not been very
effective, I have seen bromine to be very effective in human and animal applications, and provided the proper
amount is used, no side effects are experienced.  Bromine inhibits both, T4 thyroxine and T3 triiodothyronine
hormones, and in some cases only a short course of bromine is needed to return (hyper) thyroid functions
back to normal. (see also "Tin & Iodine").

Bromides can still be found in some medications, and despite a ban on potassium bromate in flour by the
World Health Organization (it was found that potassium bromate caused renal cancer in rats when they drank
water containing KBrO3), some nations are still allowing its use as oxidizer in baked goods at very low levels.
Bakers associations maintain that potassium bromate is converted to harmless potassium bromide during
the baking process.  Bromine was also used as a sleeping aid in the past, for which it worked well, however
long-term use of bromides can result in brominism, a toxic condition.  In addition, even trace amounts of
bromine can trigger severe acne in sensitive individuals.

Bromine-based Fire Retardants [30] used in carpets, mattresses, upholstery, furniture and various electronic
equipment have become suspect for causing a number of medical conditions, including hypothyroidism.
Based on animal research, bromides have also been linked to behavioral problems, neurodevelopment and
attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADD / ADHD) in children.  The European Union has already banned
some PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) compounds, and it is hoped that countries still allowing their
use will follow suit.

While Phenobarbital is the conventional approach in Veterinary Medicine to control seizures [31] in dogs, some
veterinary doctors started experimenting with bromides some years ago.  At first, they were used for resistant
cases, but now there are a large number of vets who are not opposed to using either potassium bromide, or
sodium bromide as a first choice over phenobarbital. ¤
sodium bromide / potassium bromide supplement
_________________________________________________________________________________

2014  Dietary Reference Intake  (DRI) - Recommended Dietary Allowance / Intake  (RDA / RDI) for
Adults, Children, Pregnancy & Nursing - Adequate Intake  (AI) - Tolerable Upper Intake Level  (UL)

Bromine / Bromide:       DRI (RDA):     none            Therapeutic Range:    100mg - 2,000mg

Estimated median daily intake of bromine worldwide from food and water is  2mg - 5mg / day.

Best time to take Bromine:  Late day / evening, with food.
_________________________________________________________________________________

Cellular / Intracellular Attributes and Interactions:

Bromine Synergists:   PABA,

Bromine Antagonists / Inhibitors:  Chloride, iodine,

Low Levels / Therapeutic (Deficiency) Indications for Bromine:
Seizures, insomnia, agitation, irritability, hyperthyroidism,

High levels / Overdose / Toxicity / Negative Side Effects - Symptoms and/or Risk Factors:
Poor memory, possible attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADD / ADHD) in children.
Drowsiness, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, acne, skin rash, blurred vision, dizziness, mania, pancreatitis,
hallucinations, increased thirst, hunger and urination, muscle weakness, hypothyroidism, psychosis, coma.

In Lab Animals:  Neurodevelopmental disorders and behavioral problems from exposure to PBDEs.
_________________________________________________________________________________

Bromine Sources:  Kelp, seaweed, fish, nuts, (also some baked goods and fire-retardant compounds). ¤
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________

General recommendations for nutritional supplementation:  To avoid stomach problems and improve tolerance,
supplements should be taken earlier, or in the middle of a larger meal.  When taken on an empty stomach or
after a meal, there is a greater risk of some tablets causing irritation, or eventually erosion of the esophageal
sphincter, resulting in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD).  It is also advisable not to lie down right after
taking pills.  When taking a large daily amount of a single nutrient, it is better to split it up into smaller doses
to not interfere with the absorption of other nutrients in food, or nutrients supplemented at lower amounts.

_________________________________________________________________________________
                                           Copyright © 2000-2014  Acu-Cell Nutrition - Bromine / Bromide
Updated: 6. Oct. 2014